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physik artikel (Interpretation und charakterisierung)

Physik



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  • What was mercury about?

    Project Mercury was launched one year after Sputnik was shot into space on October 7, 1958 as NASA's first project. It had three prime objectives. - to send manned spacecraft into orbit (circle Earth) - to find out weather humans can work properly in space, and - to recover both man and spacecraft safely. The Mercury engineers were true pioneers. Nothing that they were doing has ever been done before. The engineers had to build a space ca ...

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  • Mission history

    Out of a group of 110 military pilots, seven were chosen to become America's first Astronauts, the Mercury Seven. They all gave their spacecraft a name which ended with a 7 to emphasize the teamwork among them. Before they could go on their mission tests on animals, and even a breathing robot were conducted. On May 5, 1961, a Redstone, that was given the name Freedom 7, was ready to take off. It took Allan B. Shepard Jr. on a 15 minute spac ...

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  • The importance of mercury

    The Mercury Project answered many of the basic questions about space flight. It has proven that is possible to build rockets that are strong enough to launch humans into space, and that they could survive there. The engineers gained much experience and learned about the difficulties of preparing a rocket. It also showed that a global communications network was necessary to make the missions more secure. The program was so successful that th ...

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  • Just another step on the way to the moon?

    After the success of Mercury the Gemini Program was showing the Gemini Program was introduced to the public on January 3, 1962. At this time Apollo had already been called into life. To the public it was not as interesting as Mercury or Apollo since it was not real pioneering anymore. It was a mere preparation for the Apollo program. The Gemini Program had three main objectives. The first was to accomplish space fights of two weeks in durat ...

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  • Important missions

    The first manned Gemini mission (Gemini 3) took off on March 23, 1965. It was a successful test of the design and lasted just four hours. The first full-time Gemini mission was launched on June 3, 1965, and returned safely four days later. Its highlight was the first space-walk ever. James McDivitt left the capsule for 22 minutes tied to a tether. The goal of a two week space flight was accomplished by Gemini VII from December 4-18, 1965. ...

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  • The technical aspects of apollo

    The Apollo Program was initiated in July 1960, a year earlier than Gemini. At first its prime objective was to fly astronauts around the Moon. Another program including a lunar landing was planned to follow. When President John F. Kennedy declared that an American astronaut would be landing on the surface of the Moon before the end of the decade Apollo shifted its focus. Besides taking men to the Moon the program had two other objectives. The ...

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  • The missions that made history

    The United States lost some of its astronauts for the first time as Apollo was nearing completion. It happened on January 27, 1967, when a test for the first manned Apollo mission was scheduled. The command module caught fire, trapping three astronauts inside. The intense investigation and the modifications to Apollo delayed the program for more than a year. The next manned mission left off on October 11, 1968. It did not start with the luna ...

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  • Skylab

    Since the earliest days of the NASA space program concepts for a space station were studied. They all failed, however, since there was no way of getting such a station into orbit. As the powerful Saturn V rockets were invented in the mid-Sixties for the Apollo program Skylab initially called the "Apollo Applications Program", was born. Leftover Apollo hardware was should be used to male longer stays of astronauts in space possible. At first ...

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  • Apollo-soyuz

    Apollo-Soyuz was the last mission of the Apollo era. It was less a technical matter than it was a political one. In 1972 U.S. President Nixon and the Soviet leader Kosygin initiated the program. It was a symbol for the goodwill between the two superpowers. American and Soviet scientists had to grant each other inside into their respective programs so that a common docking system could be designed. In preparation of the flight Soviet cosmon ...

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  • The design of the space shuttle

    The Space Transportation System, better known as the Space Shuttle, meant a revolution to space flight in many ways. It was the first reusable space craft, and allowed not only to take satellites into space but also to take them back to Earth. Furthermore, many of today's Shuttle flights are non-military operations The Shuttle project was started in 1972. A spacecraft that could be used over and over again proved to be a difficult task for th ...

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  • Shuttle missions

    Space Shuttles usually take off with a seven-man-crew. Such a large crew allows to divide the astronauts into two categories. There are the pilots who are responsible for flying and maintaining the orbiter and there mission specialists for experiments and payloads. These specialists are not necessarily career-astronauts. During the early missions the Space Shuttles often carried communications satellites into the sky. Sometimes three satell ...

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  • The mir space station

    After Skylab Mir was the second permanent space station. Its core was launched on February 19, 1986. Over ten years later it was completed with the adding of the Remote Sensor Module. During its 13 years in orbit it was a home for 62 cosmonauts from 24 different countries. Mir is floating 390 km above Earth. A Russian cargo and resupply vehicle is used to send science equipment and data to and from the station. Each transport also includes ...

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  • Space

    From our small world, called Earth - the blue planet, we have gazed upon the cosmic ocean for untold thousands of years. Ancient astronomers observed points of light that appeared to move among the stars. They called these objects planets, meaning wanderers, and named them after Roman deities - Jupiter, king of the gods; Mars, the god of war; Mercury, messenger of the gods; Venus, the god of love and beauty, and Saturn, father of Jupiter ...

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  • Chronology of space exploration

    1912 Balloon flight - Discovered cosmic rays (Europe) 1946 NRL V-2 rocket (USA) 1957 SPUTNIK 1 - First artificial satellite (USSR) 1969 APOLLO 11 - First manned lunar landing (USA) 1970 LUNA 17 - USSR Lunar Lander and Rover 1973 SKYLAB - America´s first Space Station 1990 Hubble Space Telescope (USA and Europe) 1996 MARS 96 Future Missions 1998 Planet B - Japan Mars Orbiter 1999 STARDUST - USA Comet Sample Return 2001 Pluto-Exp ...

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  • Spannungsquellen

    Grundlagen  Ohmsches Gesetz siehe Protokoll : "Elektrische Messinstrumente"  Kirchhofsche Regeln siehe Protokoll : "Elektrische Messinstrumente"  Serien und Parallelschaltung von Widerständen siehe Protokoll : "Elektrische Messinstrumente"  Trockenelement Das Trockenelement ist ein spezielles galvanisches Element, bestehend aus zwei verschiedenen Elektroden und einem Elektrolyten (Stoff, der in wäss ...

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  • Spektralanalyse

    Licht besteht aus unterschiedlichsten Wellen bzw. Strahlungen, von denen nur ein kleiner Teil der Bereich des sichtbaren weißen Lichtes ist. Nach Wellenlänge geordnet (längste Wellenlänge zuerst) wird das gesamte elektromagnetische Spektrum folgendermaßen unterteilt. Überschneidungen der einzelnen Bereiche sind möglich: technischer Wechselstrom um 107 Meter tonfrequenter Wechselstrom um 105 Meter Langwellen 30 Kilometer bis 600 Mete ...

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  • Absorptionsspektren

    Der größte Teil der Information über den Aufbau des Atoms stammt aus der Spektroskopie. Spektren von Molekülen sind ähnlich nützlich bei der Erforschung von Molekülen, was für die Chemie noch wichtiger ist als für die Physik. Die meisten Molekülspektren sind typische "Bandenspektren", d. h., das Spektrum besteht aus einer Reihe von hellen Banden, von denen jede aussieht wie ein Stück des kontinuierlichen Spektrums. Diese Stücke sind durch dunkle ...

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  • Prismenspektroskop

    Gustav Robert Kirchhoff und Robert Wilhelm Bunsen entwickelten die moderne Form des Prismenspektroskops und verwendeten es für die chemische Analyse. Dieses Instrument, das einen von zwei grundlegenden Typen von Spektroskopen darstellt, besteht aus einem Spalt, der Licht von einer externen Quelle durchlässt. Außerdem enthält ein Prismenspektroskop eine Gruppe von Linsen, ein Prisma sowie ein Okular. Das zu analysierende Licht läuft durch eine Lin ...

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  • Spektrograph

    In einem Spektrograph ist das Okular durch eine Kamera ersetzt. Farbphotographie ist für die Identifikation der Abbilder (Spektrallinien) nicht nötig. Ihre Wellenlängen können aus ihrer Position auf dem Film berechnet werden. Spektrographen setzt man im gesamten ultravioletten, im sichtbaren und darüber hinaus auch im infraroten Bereich bis 1 200 Nanometer ein. Das Verfahren in den extrem ultravioletten und infraroten Bereichen ist der Methode im ...

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  • Spektralphotometer

    Mit einem Spektralphotometer misst man die Intensität eines besonderen Spektrums und vergleicht diese mit der Lichtintensität einer Standardstrahlungsquelle. Durch diesen Vergleich kann die Konzentration der Substanz ermittelt werden, die das Spektrum aussendet oder absorbiert. Spektralphotometer sind auch zur Untersuchung von Spektren im nicht sichtbaren Bereich geeignet. So genannte Bolometer sind besonders für Untersuchungen im Infrarotbereich ...

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