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  • Statistical evidence of racial bias

    The role of racial bias in the administration of justice has been the subject of extensive and often controversial research in the USA. Numerous studies have found empirical evidence of disparate treatment of criminal defendants on the basis of ethnic origin. Critics of these findings argue that the statistical results are skewed by factors such as the generally higher crime rates in ethnic communities or poor methodology in the research. Nonethe ...


  • Prosecutorial discretion and racial bias

    The death penalty is not mandatory for any crime in the USA, nor can it be applied except to a fairly narrow category of offences. This selective narrowing of its use has meant that death sentences are comparatively rare; for example, of the 12,007 adults convicted of murder in 1994, only 318 were sentenced to death. In most US jurisdictions which retain the death penalty, the decision on whether to seek its imposition in any particular ca ...


  • Excluding minorities from jury duty

    Abuses of prosecutorial authority are not limited to the selective laying of capital charges. The jury selection process for death penalty trials permits both the defence and the prosecution to question prospective jurors and to exercise a set number of "peremptory challenges" - the right to exclude individuals deemed to be unsuitable without giving a reason. In a host of cases involving black defendants, prosecutors have used their challenges to ...


  • Racism behind closed doors: prejudice in the jury room

    A cornerstone of the Anglo-American system of justice is the right of all defendants to a trial before a jury of their peers. To ensure that juries deliberate fairly and impartially, prospective jurors are questioned during the selection process (known as voir dire). Individuals with a bias for or against the defendant are to be excluded from jury service. As a further safeguard to protect the integrity of the process, jurors deliberate behind cl ...


  • For the defence: racist representation of indigent defendants

    The prejudices of prosectors and jurors are not the only racial factors which threaten the impartiality of capital trials. Almost all people accused of death-eligible crimes are impoverished and must rely on court-appointed lawyers to defend them at trial. Given the appallingly low standards of many court-appointed attorneys in numerous jurisdictions, there is an ever-present risk that minority defendants may be represented by lawyers who are not ...


  • Racism on the bench

    Whatever the colour of a defendant's skin, they are entitled to presume that the judge who presides over their trial will administer the proceedings in an impartial manner. But trial judges in the USA are mostly elected officials; like prosecutors, their neutrality cannot be assumed merely because of the responsible position with which they have been entrusted by the community. In Missouri, Brian Kinder, an unemployed back man, was tried b ...


  • Death by insinuation: playing on racial stereotypes

    It is the role of the prosecution to persuade the jury that the defendant is guilty; in capital cases, the prosecution must also convince jurors that the defendant is so irredeemable as to merit the harshest penalty which the law can impose. In their zeal to obtain death sentences, some prosecutors have resorted to tactics intended to trigger latent prejudices and racial stereotypes in the minds of jurors. Emmitt Foster, black, was execute ...


  • The us supreme court: ignoring the reality

    In 1857, the US Supreme Court ruled in Dred Scott v. Sandford that no black person, whether slave or free, could be a US citizen because the Constitution itself excluded them from the national community. This exclusion was justified because blacks were "subordinate and inferior beings, who had been subjugated by the dominant race, and...remained subject to their authority." In 1896, in Plessy v Ferguson, the US Supreme Court upheld laws seg ...


  • Race and the federal authorities: failing to meet historic obligations

    Throughout US history, the Federal Government has played the predominant role in the elimination of institutionalized racism. Historic measures such as the Emancipation Proclamation which abolished slavery, the passage of the Fourteenth Amendment to guarantee equality before the law and civil rights legislation outlawing discrimination were all initiated by the federal authorities. It is all the more shameful, therefore, that the US government ha ...


  • The failure of racial justice legislation: a moral paralysis

    There have been many unsuccessful attempts to legislate against the racist use of the death penalty. Proponents of Warren McCleskey's claims (detailed on pages 7 and 22) called on the US Congress to exercise its statutory authority to prohibit any unjustifiable racial disparities demonstrated through statistical evidence. In 1988, the Fairness in Death Sentencing Act (also known as the Racial Justice Act) was proposed. The legislation would have ...


  • Discrimination and the death penalty: an international concern

    On 21 October 1994, the USA finally ratified the International Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Racial Discrimination, 28 years after they signed it. Under the terms of the Convention, the US is obliged to report initially within one year and every two years thereafter on legislative, judicial, administrative and other measures taken to give effect to the Convention. To date, the US government has failed to submit any of these report ...


  • A farewell to arms by ernest hemingway

    Ernest Miller Hemingway: He was born in 1899 in a Chicago suburb as the second of six children of a doctor In 1918 he volunteered to work as an ambulance driver on the Italian front, where he was badly wounded, but twice decorated for it. He returned to America, where he got married. In 1922 he reported on the Greco-Turkish war, however two years later he resigned from journalism to devote himself to fiction. His first published works: " ...


  • English as a global language

    English is spoken in most parts of the world, for instance in Great Britain, the USA, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and in many more countries. Moreover in African states English serves as main form of communication. English is, after the Chinese one, the language most people speak and it is the most popular second language and foreign language pupils learn in school. The English language is often named as a "killer language" that wipes out ...


  • "dead man walking" by sister helen prejean --

    1) The story In 1988, Chava Colon from the Prison Coalition asked Sister Helen Prejean to become a pen-pal to Elmo Patrick Sonnier, a death-row-inmate. In 1977, Patrick and his Brother Eddie had abducted a teenage couple, Loretta Bourque and David Le Blanc, from a lovers' lane, raped the girl, forced them to lie face down and shot them in the head. It had taken a month to capture the killers. Pat was sentenced to death and his younger broth ...


  • Androids

    What elements of Do androids dream of electric sheep translate well into film. The book Do Androids dream of electric sheep is the sort of science fiction story that has several elements which can be put into film. One element of this book that goes well into film is the setting in particular the infrastructure. It is set in the futuristic Los Angles it is a place with big tall skyscrapers and virtual cities inside buildings th ...


  • Basic machine tool elements

    Most machine tools are built by using two or more components. These components, although they may have different functions in such machines as a lathe, miller or drill press, have some common characteristics. 1.1 Structures and Frames Stability of the machine structure is required to prevent chatter. We differ three large elements of machine tools: The structure they have, the material they are of and the methods by which they are con ...


  • The cutting machines

    Devices which are shaping workpieces with the help of chip cutting are called Chip controlled Cutting Machines. Shaping with the help of chip control is a very expensive and cost intensive work-procedure, because of the lost of material in form of chips. Besides, the workpiece and the machine itself are subject to wear (tear). To guarantee the most economic way of working, workpieces are often given to a pre-treatment through cast, roll or forge ...


  • Flexible manufacturing systems, computer integrated manufacturing fms and cim - a survey

    INCLUDING STRATEGY, REASONS AND CONSEQUENCES OF IMPLEMENTATION, SUBSYSTEMS AND TECHNOLOGY 1 WHAT IS MEANT BY FMS? The key issue weather for small and large institutions is to produce and design products "to order" rather than "for stack" to cut manufacturing costs and to stay in business in the future. Flexible manufacturing systems in this sense offers the fabrication facilities and techonologies for this concept. (This facilities may i ...


  • Mobile e-business

    Dear Mrs. Gletthofer, dear classmates! The title of my presentation is "Mobile E-Business". I have choosen this article because I am very interested in this topic! I have divided my talk into 4 parts. The first part of my talk will concern the Summary of the Article. Secondly I will inform you about the history of a mobile. Finally I am going to explain some technical terms and the negative aspects of cellular telephones. I would be g ...


  • English spoken

    The English language is spoken all over the world, not only in Great Britain and Ireland, the USA, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. English is also used as a second language in many other countries like Kenya, India or Malaysia, where other native languages are spoken. English-speaking people know how useful their language is. English is an international language. It is understood by people all over the world. For example, a German can speak ...



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