In both Russia and the United States the space race was a military project in the beginning. In the Soviet union it was headed by Sergei Pavlovich Korolev. In the 30s he led an amateur rocketry organization. In the 40s and early 50s he was forced to work in Stalin's labor camps.
After Stalin's death he was allowed to focus on his rocket project again. On May 20, 1954, his design bureau got an order from the government to develop the first Ru ... mehr
2.1. What was Mercury about?
Project Mercury was launched one year after Sputnik was shot into space on October 7, 1958 as NASA's first project. It had three prime objectives.
- to send manned spacecraft into orbit (circle Earth)
- to find out weather humans can work properly in space, and
- to recover both man and spacecraft safely.
The Mercury engineers were true pioneers. Nothing that they were doing has ever been done before. The eng ... mehr
3.1. Just another step on the way to the Moon?
After the success of Mercury the Gemini Program was showing the Gemini Program was introduced to the public on January 3, 1962. At this time Apollo had already been called into life. To the public it was not as interesting as Mercury or Apollo since it was not real pioneering anymore. It was a mere preparation for the Apollo program. The Gemini Program had three main objectives.
The first was ... mehr
4.1. The technical aspects of Apollo
The Apollo Program was initiated in July 1960, a year earlier than Gemini. At first its prime objective was to fly astronauts around the Moon. Another program including a lunar landing was planned to follow. When President John F. Kennedy declared that an American astronaut would be landing on the surface of the Moon before the end of the decade Apollo shifted its focus. Besides taking men to the Moon the p ... mehr
Since the earliest days of the NASA space program concepts for a space station were studied. They all failed, however, since there was no way of getting such a station into orbit. As the powerful Saturn V rockets were invented in the mid-Sixties for the Apollo program Skylab initially called the "Apollo Applications Program", was born. Leftover Apollo hardware was should be used to male longer stays of astronauts in space possible ... mehr
6.1. The Design of the Space Shuttle
The Space Transportation System, better known as the Space Shuttle, meant a revolution to space flight in many ways. It was the first reusable space craft, and allowed not only to take satellites into space but also to take them back to Earth. Furthermore, many of today's Shuttle flights are non-military operations
The Shuttle project was started in 1972. A spacecraft that could be used over and over agai ... mehr
After Skylab Mir was the second permanent space station. Its core was launched on February 19, 1986. Over ten years later it was completed with the adding of the Remote Sensor Module. During its 13 years in orbit it was a home for 62 cosmonauts from 24 different countries.
Mir is floating 390 km above Earth. A Russian cargo and resupply vehicle is used to send science equipment and data to and from the station. Each transport also includes ... mehr
1 Space - History
1.1 A dream
On October 4, 1957, the USSR blindsided the United States in what was called a \"technological Pearl Harbor\" with the launch of Sputnik I, the first man-made earth orbiting satellite. The satellite was of little scientific value but was of a big one political. Circling the earth roughly every 90 minutes, its beeping radio signal shocked the U.S. and the world. This was followed closely by Sputnik II on November 3, ... mehr
General information about Spain:
Spain is the third largest country of Europe with 505.000 square kilometres and 39,3 million inhabitants. The main-languages are: Spanish and Catalan. Their cross national product [Bruttosozialprodukt] makes about 14.500 US Dollars per year and inhabitant. In comparison to Austria they just have half of our cross national product.
Our first stop is Barcelona which is located in Catalan ... mehr
Table of Contents
1 Introduction 2
2 Hemp History 2
3 What hemp can be used for 3
3.1 Paper 3
3.2 Fuel 3
3.3 Other Uses 3
4 Hemp as medicine 4
5 The drug THC 4
6 Why hemp is outlawed 5
7 Conclusion 5
8 Appendix 6
9 Glossary 8
10 Hemp - Handout 9
This speech is about hemp, also known as Cannabis, Marihuana, Reefer, Pot, Grass and other terms.
For thousands of years this plan ... mehr
Every year 150 - 200 children die of child abuse in Britain. There are several different types of child abuse, although the exact categories vary from country to country. In Britain five types of abuse are recognised: physical abuse, sexual abuse, neglect, emotional abuse and failure to thrive. In many cases children don't suffer only from one type, for example, sexual abuse often includes emotional abuse.
In the following pages I worked out mo ... mehr
When children starts to behave in the following ways they might be victims of abuse or exploitation:
- Bed-wetting, nightmares, fear of going to bed, insomnia
- Changes in behaviour, extreme mood swings, excessive crying
- Unusual interest in sexual matters
- Changes in toilet-training habits
- Bruises, cuts or poorly explained injuries
- Pain, bleeding, fluid or rawness in the private areas
- School problems
4. The ... mehr
State Law and Federal Law:
Law and order is becoming an increasingly big issue in the United States, and politicans are being perusaded by anxious voters to put it at the top of the political agenda, alongside docial welfare, jobs and the economy. Dispite a drop percentage of most crimes, violent and gun-related crimes seems to be rising. It´s all very well, say some, talking of peace in the Middle-East, but what about the Middle West? Ameri ... mehr
The Cuban Missile Crises was not only localized to Cuba and the US directly, on a closer look it was a worldwide crisis, starting long before 1961 and lasting much longer.
After the Second World War the British Empire was supporting Greece and Turkey in economical as well as financial ways. But in 1947, during India's struggle for independence, the Empire was not longer able to give further financial or economic aid. As there ... mehr
a) Origins of the Korean War
The surrender of Japan was inevitable after the United States had dropped the first atom bomb on Hiroshima in August 1945. Stalin was waiting for just such an opportunity which would allow the Soviets to enter the war against Japan while incurring minimal losses, and so it was no surprise when the USSR declared war against Japan after the U.S. had dropped the second atom bomb. Upon Japanese surrender on August 15 ... mehr
Vietnam had been under foreign rule for much of its history, first of all under the Chinese. In 1860, France began its domination of the area and had, by the late 19th century, implemented its colonization in a number of regions around the Gulf of Tonkin. During WWII, the Japanese government took control of much of the area and set up a puppet regime that was eventually forced out by the Vietnamese at the end of that war in 1945.
A ... mehr
Laos is an Asian country near Vietnam. The conflict the US had there was soon fought out in Vietnam. Because of this, I've not written a special chapter about Laos. Because of the same reason I won't mention Cambodia, which was only important during the very last phase of the Vietnam War.
The main cause of the constant hostility between the United States and Iraq seems to be disagreement over the extent of need for United Nations inspections. The US and the UN claim that Iraq is not living up to the terms of the agreement and is continuing to develop WOMDs (Weapons of mass destructions). Iraq denies this and claims that the US is attempting to subvert its national sovereignty and humiliate the country through continu ... mehr
Looking for the roots of terrorism arising from Islamic countries I had to leave the field of the history of our Western civilization.
First of all I want to say that I condemn terrorist activity of all kind. Northern Irish terrorism is as bad as Islamic. There is no single fanatic organisation which has the right to do things in the way they are doing them, but looking back each of us can see that terrorist activity does not come ... mehr
It is common wisdom today that the key to building wealth is taking risks. People who take higher risks get the higher returns and wealth. There are risk/return graphs in investment and business that prove this. Most of us by now have heard that stocks have higher risk and volatility but higher returns over time than investments like bonds. New entrepreneurial ventures have higher risk and f ... mehr