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philosophie artikel (Interpretation und charakterisierung)

Philosophie



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  • Geschichte und rolle der jungen welt als zeitung der fdj

    Daß es die junge Welt überhaupt gibt, ist ein paar bemerkenswerten Singularitäten der Weltgeschichte zu verdanken. Am Anfang steht eine Zeitung gleichen Namens (aber mit großem \"J\"), die während des Zweiten Weltkriegs im Londoner Exil von der damals schon als Bündnisorganisation existierenden Freien Deutschen Jugend herausgegeben wurde. In der SBZ und der DDR wurde die Junge Welt das Zentralorgan der gleichnamigen Staatsjugendorganisation. Zule ...

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  • Der gremliza-kurs

    \"Gremlizas Konzept bestand im wesentlichen aus drei Teilen. Zunächst bekam das Blatt ein neues Gesicht (Layout, Anm. d.V.). (...)Gremliza entwarf weiterhin eine neue Blattstruktur, (...). Das markanteste Element war am Anfang sicher die neue Titelseite, auf der die wichtigen Nachrichten des Tages zu einem einzigen Artikel verarbeitet werden sollten. (...) Leider zeigte sich, daß das Verfahren nicht praktikabel war, weil ihm letztlich kaum ein Au ...

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  • Das außen der jungen welt, tageszeitung ohne parteiverweis

    Der \"Tendenzschutz\" ermöglicht dem Verleger einer Zeitung die Festlegung einer \"publizistisch politischen Grundlinie.\" In einem plural verfaßten politischen System soll damit für einen Investor die Kontinuität des politischen Kurses einer Redaktion auf eine gesetzliche gestellt werden. In der Praxis führte diese Regelung zu einer Zuordbarkeit von Tageszeitungen zu einer durch eine Partei vertretenen politischen Programmatik. Dies bedeutet zun ...

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  • Zusammenfassung: Ähnliches und trennendes von politischem

    Radikalismus und Jugendkultur Ist das Außen der jungen Welt mit dem Außen der Jugendkultur vergleichbar? Läßt sich aus der Tatsache, daß die meisten Neuabonnenten der jungen Welt aus der jüngeren Altersgruppe kommen, eine Ähnlichkeit von Jugendkultur und politischem Radikalismus belegen? Oder auf den Punkt gebracht: Ist eine Politisierung kulturvermittelt bzw. haben umgekehrt politisch Linksradikale stets erlesene Plattensammlungen? Letztere F ...

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  • Bourgeois and proletarians

    9: Marx felt that the revolutions of 1848 marked a major turning point, as isnow undisputed. He sets out to trace the patterns which have run through all ofpreceding history. Unsurprisingly, he considers exclusively European societies,beginning with the classical world. What does he say is the main source ofconflict throughout history? How does he say the bourgeoisie has differed inthe way it has affected this pattern of conflict? He explains how ...

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  • Proletarians and communists

    22: What does Marx say the relationship of the Communists to the proletarians asa whole is? In what ways are they different from other working-class parties? What are their immediate aims? 23: Marx argues that his theories are not mere intellectual inventions butscientifically provable facts. What effect might it have on political debate ifone believes that one\'s arguments are irrefutable fact? Marx now sets himselfto answer many of the most c ...

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  • Position of the communists in relation to the various existing oppositionparties

    43: Much of this section can be summarized by simply saying that the Communistsallied themselves with whatever groups they thought were moving in the rightdirection (\"progressive\"). 44: As Marx predicted, Germany developed one of the largest and most powerfulsocialist movements in the world; but the international socialist movementalmost collapsed when Germany launched World War I and the socialist partysupported the government. However, so ...

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  • Ame: soul

    In this article Voltaire ironically examines the concept of thesoul, which had been finely subdivided as he describes by theancient Greek philosopher Aristotle, whose definitions were adaptedby the thirteenth century Italian theologian Thomas Aquinas, andwhich became the basis of Roman Catholic teaching on the subject(see p. 24). Much of this article is spent mocking these teachings.Focus instead on Voltaire\'s attitude toward knowledge. Someof h ...

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  • Amour: love

    For Voltaire love equals sex. What quality of sexuality does hesay is unique to human beings, denied to the lower animals? Whatdo you think of his argument? What is the point of the quotationfrom the Earl of Rochester (a notorious skeptic) on p. 30? Howdoes he argue on p. 31 that syphilis is not the result of God\'sdispleasure with human immorality, as many priests had argued?Can you apply this argument to the AIDS epidemic? Phryne, Lais,Flora an ...

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  • Amour-propre: self-love

    What Christian traditions might Voltaire have had in mind in tellingthe story of the Indian fakir on p. 35? What is his position onself-love and self-sacrifice? ...

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  • Athée, athéisme: atheist, atheism

    You can skim most of this article up to p. 55. Voltaire beginshis discussion of atheism with a long list of distinguished peoplefrom the past who have been unjustly accused of atheism. On p.50, why does Voltaire call the Romans wiser than the Greeks? Notehow he calls modern Europeans \"the barbarian peoples whichsucceeded the Roman empire.\" Voltaire cites Vannini as apredecessor of the Enlightenment figures like himself who arguedin favor of dei ...

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  • Bien (tout est) all is good

    Voltaire\'s most famous work, Candide, satirizesthe arguments of Leibnitz [here spelled Leibniz] and Pope that\"all is for the best in this best of all possible worlds.\"On the bottom of p. 68, what basic element of Christianity doeshe say Leibnitz has fatally weakened by adopting his thesis? Hesummarizes Lactantius\' devastating statement of the classic\"problem of evil\" on p. 69, delighting in drawinghis arguments from an unimpeachably Catholi ...

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  • Bornes de l'esprit humain: limits of the human mind

    As elsewhere in Voltaire, \"doctor\" means \"theologian.\"In what way is the subject of this article related to the lastparagraph of the previous one? What is his attitude toward thosewho claim to have absolute knowledge? Why is he so opposed tosuch attitudes? ...

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  • Catéchisme chinois: chinese catechism

    Like most of Voltaire\'s writings on Asian religions, thisbears slight relation to real Asian thought. It is instead a vehiclefor the expression of some of his more daring criticisms of Christiantheology. By using the dialogue format, he can offer two disputants,one more skeptical than the other. What is his attitude towardthe concept of Heaven on p. 79? Does he reject the concept thatEarth is unique in the universe? In ridiculing the myth of Foh ...

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  • Certain, certitude: certain, certainty

    What is Voltaire\'s basic attitude toward human certainty?What does he argue are the only kinds of \"immutable andeternal\" certainty? What Christian belief is he satirizingin his example about the Marshal of Saxe on p. 107? Why do youthink this question of certainty and uncertainty is so importantto Voltaire? How is it reflected in other articles in the Dictionary? ...

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  • Chane des événements: chain of events

    Voltaire takes it as given that all events have causes, that theworld operates like an \"immense machine\" (p. 110),but argues that not all actions have results. It may seem strangethat someone so passionately attached to freedom should arguefor determinism (the belief that everything happens by necessity).Why do you think this argument attracted Voltaire? ...

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  • Credo

    Voltaire begins this declaration of his personal theology witha joke in which Mlle Duclos is so ignorant of her religion thatshe has the Credo confused with the Pater Noster (theLord\'s Prayer). The point of the paragraph at the bottomof p. 159 and the top of p. 160 is that the Christian Credo probablyevolved some time after Jesus, and does not reflect the beliefsof his early followers. The paragraph about the belief that Christdescended into Hel ...

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  • Égalité: equality

    What, according to Voltaire, is humanity\'s greatest divinegift? And what is the result of not using this gift properly?He is echoing Rousseau\'s famous statement that \"Manis born free and is everywhere in chains,\" and to some degreereplying to the latter philosopher\'s theories of humanequality in The Social Contract. What does he argue isthe cause of inequality on p. 182? What common human characteristicslead to inequality (p. 183)? Note his ...

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  • Enthousiasme: enthusiasm

    Why does Voltaire label enthusiasm a disease? (Note that the 18th-centuryFrench use of this term is not identical with contemporary Englishusage.) His story about the young man so carried away by a tragedythat he decides to write one himself is a self-mocking comment:he wrote many tragedies. Ovid\'s The Art of Love and TheLoves are cynical observations on love affairs, whereas Sappho\'spoetry is filled with passion. She was said in ancient times ...

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  • États, gouvernements: quel est le meilleur? states,governments: which is the best?

    Voltaire begins this article by mocking those who claim to beable to reform government based on an imperfect understandingof the world. The article really begins on p. 192 when he raisesthe question of what sort of government a \"wise man, free,of modest wealth, and without prejudices\" would prefer tolive in. Typically, he sets this dangerous debate (remember thatVoltaire lived in an absolute monarchy endorsed by the Church)by placing it in the ...

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