Wie durch die folgende Tabelle demonstriert wird, werden Entwicklungsländer stärker als Industrieländer durch NTH\'s der drei großen Handelsblöcke EU, USA und Japan behindert. Trade coverage ratios stellen den wertmäßigen Anteil der Importe dar, der durch NTH\'s gehemmt wird. Der Nachteil an trade coverage ratios ist, daß sie nicht messen wie restriktiv die NTH\'s in Bezug auf ihre preiserhöhende bzw. mengenreduzierende Wirkung sind. Durch d ... mehr
Das deutsche Tarifvertragsgesetz regelt die Rechte und Pflichten der Vertragsparteien und enthält Rechtsnormen, die den Inhalt, den Abschluss, die Beendigung und weiteren Punkte von Tarifverträgen ordnen.
WAS REGELN DIE TARIFVERTRÄGE
Die Tarifverträge regeln die Mindestbedingungen der Arbeitsverhältnisse. Hierzu gehören z.B.: Lohn, Gehalt und die Ausbildungsvergütung, sowie die wöchentliche Arbeitszeit und noch viele an ... mehr
DER ARBEITSKAMPF STREIK
Der Streik ist das Kampfmittel der Arbeitnehmer. Sie legen die Arbeit nieder und hoffen, dass durch die Verluste die durch den Arbeitgeber entstehen können, ihre Forderung durchzusetzen sind. Wenn in einem Betrieb die Produktion nachläst haben die Arbeitgeber Bezugskosten, aber keine Erträge.. Voraussetzung für den Streik ist eine Urabstimmung, bei der in der Regel 75 % der Gewerkschaftsmitglieder, die ihre Stimme abgeb ... mehr
Ein Tarifvertrag ist ein Vertrag, in dem einheitliche Arbeitsbedingungen für die Arbeitnehmer ganzer Wirtschaftszweige festgelegt werden. Beispiel: Metallindustrie, Bauindustrie, Fleischerhandwerk.
Tarifverträge werden von den Tarifpartner abgeschlossen. Dies sind auf der Arbeitnehmerseite die Gewerkschaften und auf der Unternehmerseite die Arbeitgeberverbände. Die Vertragsparteien nennt man auch Sozialpartner.
ARBEITGEBERVERB ... mehr
Ein Arbeitskampf schwächt nicht nur die betroffenen Parteien, sondern die gesamte Volkswirtschaft. Wird beispielsweise ein großer Betrieb bestreikt, wirkt sich dies auch auf Zulieferer aus. Für die Verbraucher kann sich die Güterversorgung verschlechtern. Produktionsausfall und verlorene Arbeitstage verschlechtern die Konjunktur, das Wirtschaftswachstum und das BIP werden beeinträchtigt. Der Staat wird geschädigt durch Steuerausfälle, die Sozialv ... mehr
Evidence over the past 30 years suggests that teenagers are having their first sexual experience at ever younger ages , although the threat of AIDS may be slowing or even halting this trend. Numbers of those having their first intercourse before 16 have increased : currently about one in four teenage men and one in six teenage women. Around half of 16 year olds and around 80 percent of 19 year olds are now sexually experienced. Working - class ... mehr
Measuring changes in attitude is beyond the scope of most research, but some attempts have been made to find out what teenagers feel about their pregnancy. You can divide in those who wanted to conceive ( 22% ); those who did not mind either way ( 25 %); those who had not considered the possibility of pregnancy (18%); and those who had thought it important to conceive when they did (35%). Earlier research with a sample of 102 young women in Bri ... mehr
In every country around the world women try to terminate their pregnancies, if they are convinced this is the only solution left. An abundance of research data indicate that the decision to do so is largely independent of tradition, religion, legal status of abortion, or medical risks involved. In the past decades, it has been accepted in an increasing number of countries that the need for termination of pregnancy can be greatly reduced throu ... mehr
Members: 626 elected every 5 years
Germany 99, France, Italy, the United Kingdom 87 each, Spain 64, the Netherlands 31, Belgium, Greece and Portugal 25 each, Sweden 22, Austria 21, Denmark and Finland 16 each, Ireland 15, Luxembourg 6. Next election due 1999
Meeting places: Strasbourg for monthly plenary sessions. Brussels for committee meetings and additional sessions. The General Secretariat is based in Luxembourg.
The European Parliamen ... mehr
The most important powers of the European Parliament fall into three categories:
fÞ legislative power
fÞ power over the budget
fÞ supervision of the executive
Originally, the Treaty of Rome (1957) gave the Parliament only a consultative role, allowing the Commission to propose and the Council of Ministers to decide legislation. Subsequent Treaties have extended Parliament¡¦s influence to amending and even adopting l ... mehr
All of the EU´s major political currents are represented in the Parliament, ranging from far left to far right, and numbering close to 100 political parties. These are organized in a limited number of political groups (presently eight).
Overall management of the Parliament's activities is the responsibility of the Bureau which consists of the President and 14 Vice-Presidents. All of its Members are elected for terms of two and a half years.
Members: ministers of the 15 Member States
Presidency: from 1 July 1995 rotates every six months in the following sequence: Spain, Italy, Ireland, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, the United Kingdom, Austria, Germany, Finland, Portugal, France, Sweden, Belgium, Spain, Denmark, Greece
Meeting place: Brussels
The Council of the European Union, usually known as the Council of Ministers, has no equivalent anywhere in the world. Here, the Member ... mehr
The Presidency of the council rotates between the Member States every six months: January until June, July until December.
The Presidency´s role has become increasingly important as the responsibilities of the Union have broadened and deepened. It must:
. arrange and preside over all meetings;
. elaborate acceptabel compromises and find pragmatic solutions to problems submitted to the Council;
. seek to secure consistency and continuity ... mehr
The Treaty on European Union based the Union´s activities on three "pillars" and established that mainly decisions should be taken either by qualified majority voting or by unanimity.
Pillar One covers a wide range of Community policies (such as agriculture, transport, environment, energy, research and development) designed and implemented according to a well-proven decision-making process which begins with a Commission proposal. Following a ... mehr
Since 1974, Heads of State or Government meet alt least twice a year in the form of the European Council or ¡§European Summit¡¨. Its membership also includes the President of the Commission. The President of the European Parliament is invited to make a presentation at the opening session.
The European Council has become an increasingly important element of the Union, setting priorities, giving political direction, providing impetus for its de ... mehr
Community law, adopted by the Council - or by the Parliament and Council in the framework of the co-decision procedure - may take the following forms:
fz regulations: these are directly applied without the need for national measures to implement them;
fz directives: bind Member States as to the objectives to be achieved while leaving the national authorities the power to choose the form and the means to be used;
fz recommendations a ... mehr
Each Member State has a national delegation in Brussels known as the Permanent Representation. These delegations are headed by Permanent Representatives, who are normally very senior diplomats and whose committee, called Coreper, prepares ministerial sessions. Coreper meets weekly and its main task is to ensure that only the most difficult and sensitive issues are dealt with at ministerial level.
Coreper is also the destination of reports fro ... mehr
Number of Members: 20
Number per country: two from France, Germany, Italy, Spain and the United Kingdom
and one from each of the other Member States
The role and responsibilities of the European Commission place it firmly at the heart of the European Union's policy-making process. In some respects, it acts as the heart of Europe, from which the other institutions derive much of their energy and purpose.
Without ... mehr
It is the 20 Members of the Commission who provide its political leadership and direction. They bring a powerful mix of experience to their tasks, having been members of their national parliaments or of the European Parliament and, in many cases, after having held senior ministerial offices in their home countries.
They are obliged to be completely independent of their national governments and to act only in the interests of the EU. Such imp ... mehr
The Commission's democratic legitimacy is being increasingly strengthened by more determined and thorough Parliamentary vetting of the President and his colleagues. The full Commission has to be approved by the European Parliament before its members can take office. They can be required to resign en bloc by parliamentary vote of censure - a Power which has never yet been used.