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englisch artikel (Interpretation und charakterisierung)

Bush

Presidential election 2000 in usa





The choice to 43. President of the USA characteristics of the choice system irregularities supplement - second countings left by knappe the election result of the presidency election on 7 November 2000, whose final exit remained open for weeks (see judgement US supreme of the Courts from 12 December 2000)
·However many can occur this and similar irregularities also in Germany (see to the choice gau in Germany).


Characteristics of the choice system:
·By the choice system (upstream majority choice) the candidate who was subject after absolute number of votes can become president. (therefore also [ partly before the choice forbidden ] the voice exchange stock exchanges over state borders made away for sense to exchange around for example a Naderstimme in Florida and a Gorestimme in Texas.)
·The citizens select only the electors. The electors are free with their choice of the president, so that they can be correct quite deviating from their party. With the limited result of 271 electors for Bush a reversal of majority conditions was not completely improbable (see www.nara.gov).
o Bush announced complaint for the case that he receives the majority of the voices, but not the majority of the electors. (NY news 1 Nov. 2000)
o it gave to the republican electors, Gore, which had gotten altogether and in Florida more voices to select in place of Bush to call.
o as announced, contained the choice woman Barbara Lett Simmons from Washington D. C. of the voice, in order to protest against the fact that the inhabitants of Washington do not have right to vote to the congress (CNN 18 December 2000).
·Each Federal State has its own rules for the choice of the electors; it is in principle even possible the fact that a state parliament can appoint the electors without consideration of the election result would have happened (like it in Florida, if US Court had not stopped the second counting supreme).
Irregularities
·In some electoral districts choice machines were incorrect, which are considered to choice machines as outdated. As far as standards are legally prescribed, they apply only to again-purchased devices (see also message Obskure methods during evaluation of the wahlzettel).
·There were no uniform counting standards. Whether e.g. with the punch cards only completely through-punched holes are rated as valid voices was differently handled or whether already easily torn being correct fields are enough, depending upon electoral district.
·The official confirmations of the electors of 20 Federal States were not submitted within the prescribed period by 13 December in Washington·In the 3,141 districts of the United States everyone has its own rules for counting and the casting of votes.
·In the County Palm Beach a confusing wahlzettel (example voting card) one used, which led probably to the fact that o are invalid to approx. 19,000 voices (yahoo)
o approx. 3000 voices, which were zugedacht probably aluminium Gore at Pat Buchanan went, which received in comparable electoral districts only in each case around the 500 voices.
·Some voters in Florida have themselves about it to have been weighted, from the practice of your right to vote have been prevented. The black civil rights activist Jesse Jackson reported also of incidents in other southern states. Afterwards predominantly black citizens are to have been rejected on 7 November in polling stations with the reason, the wahlzettel went out. In other cases voters simply one meant, the polling stations are closed, even if this did not tune at all similar incidents described also the chairman of the most powerful American black organization NAACP, Kweisi Mfume (dpa 10,10,2000) (US law minister Janet Reno announced to follow to these complaints.)
·Each elfte afroamerikanische voice was not counted according to a study (the NY Times).
o the time 50/2000
o Washington post office 12 November 2001
·The counting had to be terminated because of the time framework given by the condition within a firm period.
o Gore reminds to the patience during counting of votes in Florida (AP 13,11,2000)
o republican requests provisional order against second counting (yahoo)
o bought demonstrators is second countings to have prevented [ Rent A mobilization ]. (small ones, dirty cheat the time 7th dec. 2000 P. 10)
·Prognoses and computer forecasts were represented as final results. It surprises that during the choice final results were even already announced, although because of pending letter votes before 17 November at all no result was certain.
·Additional urns with not evaluated voice notes had later emerged (dpa 9,11,2000)·Voters in Martin County and Selmore County deplored that invalid letter votes (for Bush) later changed and (klageschrift Taylor v. Martin County (pdf), further court documents). If the complaints rejected from the district courts would have been successful, the being correct and elector majority would be in Florida probably at Gore please.
·In Alaska are registered more humans into the waehlerlisten, than there are inhabitants entitled to vote. LA Times 11.Dez.2000
·In Indiana wimmeln the waehlerverzeichnisse of dead one, big criminals and registered several times. LA Times 11.Dez.2000·In Milwaukee, Marquette University confessed students of the Los Angeles Times, it its voice up to four times would have delivered. (\\\"It\\\'s easy tons vote more than once, \\\"the student said. \\\"NO one seems ton care.\\\") LA Times 11.Dez.2000
·In Texas it gives \\\"vote whores\\\", to people the complaisance proves, in order to get their letter choice documents. In some cases the voice collecting tanks documents buy or stole them from mail boxes. LA Times 11.Dez.2000·Choice letters come not on or somewhere: Several days, after steven and Barbara Forrest and her 29-jaehriger Sohn from the state Washington had away-sent her choice envelopes, the Danish married couple Brian and light Kain on the island Fyn close Copenhagen it found in its post office. LA Times 11.Dez.2000
·By the Hickhack with the counting and the being waiting of the letter votes it seems to occur the first time that letter votes in Florida are at all still counted out.·A study the haven countries State University comes to the result that more than 36,000 of the 1.5 millions voter Oregons did not fill out their voting cards. LA Times 11.Dez.2000 the crucial court decisions·After a judgement of the highest Court of Justice of Florida of 8.12. all invalid voices, as far as not already happen, should be examined again by hand counting (highest court in Florida allows to complaint Gores, Reuters message from 8 December). Without a definition of uniform counting criteria the court did however.·The highest one of Court of Justice of the USA has thereupon one day later the attitude of the hand counting of the voices arranged and for Monday, which 11 December a hearing fixes. (wording of the arrangement)·In its judgement from 12 December the highest Court of Justice of the USA returned the procedure formally at of Florida Court of Justice. Were complained of (of seven of the nine judges) above all the non-uniform counting out guidelines, which were an offence against the principle of equality of the US condition. A new second counting on the basis of uniform criteria was however no longer possible in opinion of a 5:4-Mehrheit of the judges because of the expiration of the designation period for the electors. Comment: The judgement US supreme of the Courts is incomprehensibly, almost absurd. To agree it is it that a second counting is according to non-uniform criteria inakzeptabel. The judges ignore thereby however completely that not only the second counting was affected by inequalities, but also already the actual choice. Thus there were invalid voices than elsewhere due to the different casting of votes method (with partial adventurous irregularities) in some Counties by far more. And here it concerned not as during the second counting around a voice shift between Bush and Gore a few hundred voices, but several to ten thousand voices. These equality offences could have been corrected however by none however constituted second counting, so that there has might be only a correct decision: Repetition of the choice in Florida. In addition, the opinion of the judge majority, a correct second counting is possible for temporal reasons any longer, cannot not convince. The US electoral law plans only that the election result of a Federal State, their electors meets not until six days before the elector committee (18,12.) clearly were designated, by the congress to be examined and if necessary amended can. Thus the electoral law leaves even expressly a later designation too (it places however under the reservation of the congress). Thus also after the decision US would have remained supreme of the Courts still six days time to accomplish a second counting according to uniform criteria. The question arises anyway whether these periods, those on logistic relationship the 18. Century it is co-ordinated, nowadays still validity to stress to be allowed or whether it in relation to the priority of a correct determination of the election result not to stand back to have. (CR) in the meantime some consortia of newspapers, chartered accoutants etc. began supplement with second countings. Basis is the \\\"Freedom OF information act\\\", according to which each citizen may take view into official documents - to which evenly also wahlzettel belong. The two most important and most extensive second countings are:·The Florida Ballots Project of the University OF Chicago on behalf of several national newspapers and TV transmitters. (evaluation among other things at the Washington post office).·The second counting on behalf Miami of the Herald and other newspapers and TV transmitter from Florida. The results of the second countings offer something for each camp:·By the Florida supreme if the Court arranged would supreme have been accomplished and of US Court stopped second countings, Bush would probably nevertheless have won. These second countings concerned however only some electoral districts of Florida and - depending upon electoral district - after different counting standards would have been accomplished.·If all invalid voices in completely Florida would have been recounted again according to uniform criteria by hand, - depending upon definition of a valid and/or invalid voice - in some scenarios Bush would have won, in other scenarios Gore.·More meaningfully than these contradictory results the evaluation is that approximately 100,000 sucked. Overvotes, i.e. the invalid voting cards, on which several candidates are marked and who cannot be considered therefore also during a second counting: o on three quarters of the Overvotes is Gore is marked, Bush against it only on a third. o the most frequent voice combination is Gore+Buchanan (on each tenth Overvote). However half of these cases arose in Palm Beach, where the legendary Butterfly voting card was used. o over 3.600 times are all candidates except Bush marked, approximately 700 times all candidates except Gore. All of this speaks for the fact that Gore would clearly have won the choice, if the operation of the choice devices and the layout of the voting cards had not made excessive demands of so many voters.·How Bush Took Florida: Mining the Overseas Absentee Vote (The New York Times, 15 July 2001) a study of the NYT to the choice envelopes of the letter votes in Florida comes to the result that of the 2490 as valid rated voices, which arrived only after the choice day 680 have might be counted, o it no reference to a punctual casting of votes contained there, postmarks or date (344), o United States postmark exhibited (183), o without signature or return address was (96), o of not registered voter or persons, who would have letter-choice-requested, came (169), o to the legal DEAD LINE 17 November arrived (5), o or of voters, who had several times selected came (19). The laxe interpretation of the criteria was observed to a large extent in districts with republican majority. The prelude article of the NYT series describes excitingly, like the republican election campaign team despite unclear recounting situation and the fear rope that later filled out per-democratic voices made of Israel (at the conclusion 64 voices came from Israel) to it decided, on a counting as much as possible letter votes (particularly in republican electoral districts) to urge. This pressure led to the fact that 97% of the voices arrived punctual before the letter choice DEAD LINE on 17 November, while with other elections a third of the voices is too late. Further pressure led to the fact that letter votes also without postmarks (as proof that was in time selected) as valid were counted. (normally less than 1% of US military of letters are not marked) a prepared instruction, in which for the wahlhelfer after a choice the standards for valid letter votes are enumerated, is in Florida after the choice verschollen and not published. See also: Report: accepted (AP, 15 July 2001) the US right to vote commission under line of the former presidents Fords and Carter as consequence from the chaos around the past US president choice a comprehensive wahlreform suggested 680 doubtful letter votes in Florida, which is limited however to the tuning and counting modalities and which untouched anachronistische choice system leaves. In addition scarcely a 100-seitiger report (pdf - 2 MT) was provided. The choice of the president of the USA [ foreign index ] documentation and result for the choice 43. President on 7 November and 13 December 2000 choice system indirect choice over elector committee (Electoral college). Characteristics·The candidate with most votes must get not necessarily most electors.·The electors are not bound partly to the vote of the voters (see www.nara.gov). I.e., knappe a majority of 270 or 271 electors does not mean automatically the choice to the president.·Each Federal State has its own rules for the choice of the electors. It seems to be even possible that a state parliament appoints the electors without consideration of the election result (reuters \\\"state parliament is to determine of Florida electors\\\").·Firm one of the condition given periods and dates. Thus it gives (outside of the periods) neither the possibility of a premature new election of examining still the possibility the choice in the context of a choice examination. Number of the electors the elector committee consists of 538 electors. The number of the electors per Federal State corresponds to the number of delegates in the congress (house of representatives + senate). Since each Federal State sends two senators independently of its size into the congress, thus also the distribution of the electors does not correspond accurately to the population distribution. Each Federal State receives thereby at least three electors. Washington D.C. - although no Federal State - sends three electors (XXIII constitutional amendment). . Electoral period the term of office of the president amounts to four years. A re-election is only once possible, however it may again begin with failed re-election (example 22. and 24. US president was pc. Grover Cleveland). A president geruschte as a vice-president during the electoral period in the office, can be red-elect twice, if he were in the first period less than 2 years president. Right to vote asset entitled to vote is each American, that 18. Lebensjahr completed and its domicile in one of the 50 federal acts or the District OF Columbia has. The inhabitants of the territories (Guam, Puerto Rico, etc..) have (like the inhabitants of D. C. before the 23. Constitutional amendment) no active right to vote. Each native US American, who is at least 35 years old, is selectable and 14 years has its domicile in the USA. Praesidentenwahl as a president is selected, who receives the absolute majority (thus at present at least 270) of the elector voices. The electors may not select two candidates from their Federal State with the president and vice-president choice. This would have become almost a problem for Bushs VP candidate Cheney, which had only briefly shifted its domicile from Texas before the choice after Wyoming. The electors have thereby no imperatives mandate, i.e. they could select also someone else. Some states prescribe the voting pattern, however here only small punishments threaten not to change, those the election result can (see www.nara.gov) if no an absolute majority win - happen in such a way 1824 - the president in the house of representatives from the three most successful candidates with absolute majority are selected, each state has a voice. After the choice of 7.11.2000 has the republicans in 28 states most house of representatives delegates, the democrats only in 16 states. If the electors do not select a vice-president with absolute majority, the vice-president is selected by the senate from the two vice-president candidates with most voices. (old) the vice-president is thereby still a president of the senate, who has the crucial voice with a Patt. If a vice-president, but no president could be selected, the vice-president becomes a president (12ter constitutional amendment). Neither if a president still another vice-president are selected, the speaker of the house of representatives (so far as a president selectable) became an acting president of the USA (subordinate spare president would be the chairman by seniority of the senate). The term of office of the acting spare presidents ends with the qualification of a more qualified replacement, and/or by separating from the senate or congress. Choice areas each Federal State (and D.C.) an final choice area forms. Each Federal State has also its own choice system for its electors. In 48 Federal States and D. C. the rule the applies winner takes all, i.e. all electors go to the list with the relative majority of the voices in the Federal State. Nebraska and Maine form an exception. Here only two electors will become according to the rule the winner takes all selected, the other electors (2 in Maine, 3 in Nebraska) with relative majority choice in the a constituencies the choice of the house of representatives selected. Schedule praesidentenwahlen take place in all years divisible by 4. On Tuesday after that 1. Monday in November - general Election: The voters in Federal States select their electors. On Monday after that 2. Wednesday in December - meeting OF Electors: The electors of each Federal State meet in their Federal State, in order to be correct for the president and the vice-president. The voices are signed, sealed in \\\"Certificates OF Vote\\\" and sent away certified to the president of the senate and the archivesist of the United States at the seat of the government. The elector committee does not meet thus as a whole. If had not succeeded in Florida to certify the election result there in time the praesidentenwahl without of Florida would have taken place electors. For the choice of the president then according to fewer elector voices would have been necessary. On 6 January, 1 o\\\'clock in the afternoon - COUNTING Electoral Votes in Congress: The congress counts out the elector voices. I.e. the president of the senate reads out it. 20 January - swearing-in in: At 12 o\\\'clock the new president and the new vice-president are sworn in.

43. President: George W. Bush (starting from 20 January 2001) George W. Bush, Sohn 41. US presidents, one bore on 6 July 1946 in new Haven. After the study in Yale and Harvard he became a businessman, until he was selected 1994 in the office of the governor von Texas. 1998 it was red-elect. On 7 November 2000 it won the presidency elections against its democratic opponent aluminium Gore very scarcely and only within the crucial range of the electors (Gore had country-wide more voices received). Bush obtained the victory, which was decided by that extremely close wahlausgang in Florida, finally by the decision of the supreme Courts of the USA. It is to be assumed this deficiency at legitimacy will load Bush at the beginning of its term of office.

 
 



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