Hello everybody. I'd like to talk to you about Melbourne. Melbourne is a very interesting city, and that's why I have chosen Melbourne for my presentation.
I have divided my talk into few parts. First I'd like to give you a few facts about Melbourne. Then I'm going to talk about the history of Melbourne. Later I will say a few words about Melbourne's cultural and ethnic diversity. And last but not least I want to describe some sights and attractions of Melbourne.
Melbourne is the second largest city in Australia and the capital of the south eastern state of Victoria. It covers an area of 7.280 sq kilometres and is home to 3.2 million people from diverse backgrounds and interests. The city is divided into two parts by the Yarra River. In the North and West of Melbourne there are the working areas, in the South and East the living areas.
The climate of Melbourne is temperate, with typical daily maximums temperatures ranging from a winter low of about 13 degrees Celsius to summer high of around 35 degrees Celsius.
The government of the City of Melbourne is the Melbourne City Council, which, as Victoria's capital city, speaks on behalf of all Melbourne in local, national and international forums. The Lord Mayer in Melbourne is John So and the Deputy Lord Mayer is Susan Riley. The City of Melbourne is committed to ensuring that it's one of the safest, healthiest and cleanest cities in the world. In 1994 Melbourne was voted as \"the worlds' most liveable city\". As a \"City for the Arts\" Melbourne is the leader in cultural activities in the Asia-Pacific region. It's also the Event Capital of Australia, with the Australian Open, the Australian Formula 1 Grand Prix and the Melbourne Cup (a world famous horse race). Melbourne has many attractions but no main attraction.
Now let's turn to the history of Melbourne!
The first people who lived in Melbourne were the Aborigines. In1835 some white settlers arrived. They took land from the Aborigines and established settlements. In 1836 Captain William Lonsdale arrived to become police magistrate for the new settlement which was established from John Pascoe Fawkner. The new settlement was named after the British Prime Minister at that time: Lord Melbourne. In 1842 Melbourne became a town. It had a population of about 10,000 people .In the 1850s gold was discovered. During the gold rush Melbourne became the fastest growing city of the British Empire. With the discovery of gold came great wealth to Melbourne. In 1861 Melbourne became the largest city in Australia. By 1881,however, the boom was over and a devastating depression started and many businesses had to close down. A few years later, in 1901 the opening of the first session of the Commonwealth Parliament was held in the Exhibition Building. At that time the population reaches 1.5 million. From then on Melbourne was the capital of Australia till 1927 when Canberra was built. Today it's the second largest city in Australia.
Now I'd like to talk about Melbourne's cultural and ethnic diversity:
After the second world war many people left their native country to start a new life in Australia where they believed that they could have a better future. Melbourne was expanding its manufacturing industries and this is where many newly arrived people found work. Others found work in new motor vehicle factories but often these people had qualifications from their own country which were not accepted in Australia. In the 1950s and early 1960s many Chinese arrived. They had their own area Chinatown like in other big cities, too. At the same time many Italians and Greeks arrived. In the1970s people from Turkey and Middle-Eastern countries came to Melbourne. Today more than 140 nations live in Melbourne, which has become a multicultural city.
Let's look at some sights and main attractions of Melbourne:
Let's start with one of the bigger sights. The Rialto Tower:
It's the tallest building (253 metres) in the southern hemisphere and a must see. It was built in the mid-1980's and it is the third highest reinforced concrete building in the world. From the top of the Rialto Tower you have a wonderful view about Melbourne.
Another attraction is Flinders Street Railway Station with its trams. Flinders Station is the oldest city station in Australia. It was built in 1854. Its 700 metre main platform is the longest in the country. The station is at the heart of Melbourne's extensive suburban rail system. Melbourne also loves its electric trams. It's the only city in Australia which still has them as a public transport system.
The next two attractions are in the south of Melbourne. It's the Crown Casino Entertainment Complex and the Exhibition Centre. The Crown Casino is the centre of Melbourne nightlife and entertainment. It was opened in 2000. The Exhibition Centre is the largest and best equipped Exhibition venue in Australia. It was designed by Denton Corker Marshall.
The Block Arcade and the Queen Victoria Market are the best possibilities to go shopping. The Block Arcade is an elegant shopping experience in the centre of Melbourne. But the Queen Victoria Market is more then just Melbourne's shopping mecca- it's an historic landmark, a tourist attraction and an institution for Melbournians. The Queen Victoria Market is the largest market in the southern hemisphere and the most popular visitors attraction in Victoria. It was officially opened on 20 March 1878 .The Vic Market as it is known by Melbournian is a great place to get a feel for Melbourne's diverse cultures. Last year the market had over 8.5 visitors.
Another attraction is the Melbourne Cricket Ground (MCG). It's one of the best-known sporting stadiums in the world and, hosted in 1956 Melbourne Olympic Games. It was built in 1853 and it can hold 100,000 spectators. In the MCG there are football games which Victorians follow with a passion. But it is also a ground for cricket fans. A visit to the ground is a must for its atmosphere and spectacle.
The Westgate Bridge is the longest bridge in Australia. It's over 2.6 kms long and soars over the Yarra River and the harbour. It offers a panoramic view of the city.
Another sight is the Royal Exhibition Building. This Building was completed in 1880 for Melbourne's first International Exhibition. The Exhibition was a great success and ran for eight month. In 1888 the Melbourne Centennial exhibition was held to promote the centenary of European settlement in Australia. It still qualifies as the biggest event ever held in Melbourne, because the attendance was over two million people.
Another big building is the Government House which is the official residence of the Governor of Victoria. This is where the Queen stays when she visits Melbourne. It's said to be the biggest house in Victoria ( some say even all over Australia). It was built during the gold rush when Melbourne was rich in money and was intend on outdoing every other house.
Let me say a few words about Melbourne's natural sights:
When you visit Melbourne it's easy to take a day trip and experience some of Victoria's wonderful natural attractions such as the Great Ocean Road which is 1 hour from Melbourne. The Great Ocean Road is a memorial in itself to those Australians who died fighting in the First World Was. Along its route and in the towns it passes through, there are numerous structures that honour the memory of those who lost their lives fighting in that \"Great War\" and other conflicts. ( It was started in 1918 and completed during the Great Depression as a public works project to give returned soldiers and unemployed people work.)
Melbourne also boats of its parks and gardens:
Melbourne's oldest formal gardens are the Treasury Gardens. The gardens were laid out in 1867 by Clement Hodgkinson. The major feature of these gardens are the statues and monuments, including the John F. Kennedy memorial.
Other gardens are the Carlton Gardens and the Royal Botanic Gardens. The Carlton Gardens are the site of the old Exhibition buildings which were originally built for the Great Exhibition of 1880. The gardens are also home to an array of wildlife. The Royal Botanic Gardens were established in 1846 and provide a popular place for families to picnic and feed the ducks, swans or sparrows. More than 350 animal species from around the world are in a botanic garden setting of 22 hectare.
The Royal Melbourne Zoo is very famous. It's Australia's oldest and is regarded by experts as one of the world's best zoos. It was opened in 1862. Although the Australian section can be covered in 90 minutes, the whole zoo takes 4 hours.
Now I'd be happy to answer any questions you may have.
Thank you for listening and I hope you know more about Melbourne now and would like to go to this city one day.