1) Definitions of sociology and familyr />
a) Definition: Sociology
The scientific study of human social relations or group life. Other disciplines within the social sciences - including economics, political science, anthropology and psychology - are also topics that fall within the scope of human society.
Sociologists examine the ways in which social structures and institutions - such as class, family, community and power - and social problems - such as crime and abuse - influence society.
Social interaction, or the responses of individuals sociological concept.
Term referring to the total human inhabitants of a specified area, such as a city, country, or continent, at a given time.
Population study as a discipline is known as demography. Itīs concerned with the size, composition, their patterns of change over time through births, deaths and migration and the determinants and consequences of such changes.
Population studies yield knowledge important for planning, particularly by governments, in fields such as health, education, housing, social security, employment and environmental preservations.
b) The field of demography:
Demography is an interdisciplinary field involving mathematics and statistics, biology, medicine, sociology, economics, history, geography and anthropology.
The development of demography has been tied closely to the gradually increasing availability of data on births and deaths from parish and civil registers.
c) Measures of population:
The number of births, deaths, immigrants and emigrants over a specified time interval determine the change in population size.
For comparative purposes, these components of change are expressed as proportions of the total population, to yield the birth rate, death rate, migration rate and the population growth rate.
Birth and death rates typically are stated as numbers per 1000 population per year.
d) World population growth and distribution:
The United Nations, an accepted authority on population levels and trends, estimates that the world population reached 5.3 billion in 1990, and is increasing annually by more than 90 million persons.
Beginning about 1950, a new phase of population growth was ushered in when famine and disease could be controlled even in areas that had not yet attained a high degree of literacy or a technologically developed industrial society.
Life expectancy at birth in most developing countries increased from about 35 - 40 years in 1950 to 61 years by 1990.
e) Regional distribution:
As of 1990 1.2 billion people lived in the developed nations of the world and 4.1 billion people lived in the less - developed countries. By region, over half the worldīs population was in East and South Asia; China, with more than 1.2 billion inhabitants and India, with some 880 million, were the dominant contributors.
Europe and the countries of the former USSR contained 15 %, North and South America made up 14 % and Africa had 12 % of world population.
Nine out of every ten persons who are now being added to the worldīs population are living in the less - developed countries.
f) Population projections:
The United Nations medium projections issued in 1990 show the world population increasing from 5.3 billion in 1990 to 6.2 billion in 2000 and 8.5 billion in 2025.
" High " and " low " projections for 2025 are 9.1 billion and 7.9 billion respectively. The average world birth rate is projected to decline from the 1990 level of 26 per 1000 to 22 per 1000 at the end of the century and to 17 per 1000 in 2025.
Because of the expanding share of the population at high - mortality ages, the average world death rate however, is projected to rise from 65 years in 1990 to 73 years in 2025.
In the developed world, population growth will continue to be very low and in some nations will even decline. Western Europe as a whole is projected to have a declining population after 2000.
For the less - developed world as a whole, the 1990 growth rate of 2.0 % per year is projected to be cut in half by 2025.
Africa will remain the region with the highest growth rate. In 1990 this rate was 3.1 %; in 2025 itīs projected to be about 2.2 % .
Africaīs population would almost triple, from 682 million in 1990 to 1.58 billion in 2025.
Basic social group united through bonds of kinship or marriage, present in all societies.
Ideally, the family provides itīs members with protection, companionship, security and socialisation.
The modern family:
Historical studies have shown that family structure has been less changed by urbanisation and industrialisation than was once supposed.
The modern family is still the basic unit of social organisation, but the modern family differs from earlier traditional forms, however, in itīs functions, composition and life cycle in the role of husband and wife.
Jobs are usually separate from the family group, family members often work in different occupations and in locations away from home.
The family is still responsible for the socialisation of children.
Family composition in industrial societies has changed dramatically.
The average number of children born to a woman in the United States, for example, fell from 7.0 in 1800 to 2.0 by the early 1990īs.
The number of years separating the births of the youngest and oldest children has declined.
Reason: This occurred in conjunction with increased longevity.
In the 90īs more than one out of four children lived with only one parent, usually the mother. Most one - parent families, however, eventually became two - parent families through remarriage. A step family is created by a new marriage of a single parent.
In a step family, problems in relations between nonbiological parents and children may generate tension; the difficulties can be especially great in the marriage of single parents when the children of both parents live with them as siblings.
3) The people get older and older - What are the problems ?
Interval of time between the birth of parents and the birth of their offspring. This is usually taken to be approximately 30 years.
All children of one set of parents are members of the same generation.
In sociology, members of a society who were born at about the same time are considered of the same generation.
Often, striking differences are found between the generations; for example, during the Vietnam War young adults in the United States and other countries tended to be highly vocal antiwar activists. The older generations, many of whom had served in the armed forces during World War II, were frequently more conservative in their reactions to the war, at least during the first few years.
Such differences in attitudes and beliefs often causes misunderstandings and antagonistic feelings between generations.
The modern medicine makes an old wish of the mankind true, to reach a high age nearly without any dangerous illnesses and pain.
It is possible for everyone to get 90 years old and feel good and powerful.
It is okay that everybody can get very old, but who pays for them?
Who works for them?
Where is the space for the young generation?
Who cares for the growing number of old people?
The number of the old people is increasing fast, but the number of the young people is decreasing.
What should we do now?
Some possibilities for the future:
a) We should not waste all of our money, we need a cash reserve.
b) The working people get fewer and one day they wonīt be able to support the lot of pensioners.
c) In the past big families lived together, but today each person wants to have his own home.
d) This is one of the reasons why we need so much living space.
e) These days the children are not willing to provide for their parents.
f) A global problem is that in the industrialised countries the birth-rate falls and in the poor countries rises fast.
g) If the poor countries had enough money, they could educate the people there. Then these countries will have a lower birth-rate.
The reason is that education goes together with the decreasing number of babies!
4) Violence in the family
Is persistent and international abuse of any kind, whether physical, sexual or mental.
The domestic violence is in a lot of cases committed against women.
In the last year:
a) 1 in 10 women were victims of domestic violence.
b) 1 in 17 women were forced to have sex with their partners without consent.
c) 1 in 5 men struck their partners.
d) 6 in 10 men saw violence against their partners as an option.
Why don't the abused woman leave their partner ?
There are a combination of reasons why women don't leave the violent relationship:
a) Homelessness b) Isolation and loneliness c) childcare responsibility d) Economic dependency
e) Immigration laws
46 % of women who suffer violence do not report the crime for fear of reprisals and many do not think they will be believed or taken seriously.
The government wants to help abused women:
The government established a lot of organisations but many of the resources and agencies to turn for help have suffered massive cuts.
For example the " Councile Housing ": Mothers who leave violent men must wait months or years for housing!
Children and domestic violence:
Some people think children are stupid like dump animals, but they know exactly what is going on.
Professionals and the public have recently become more aware of the impact of physical and sexual abuse on children.
Living in a violent household can effect your whole life.
The longer - term effects of domestic violence on children results in depression and difficulties in forming relationships.
5) Young people and homelessness
Homeless 16 to 24 years - olds:
a) do not generally choose to leave home
b) are from all walks of life and every region in Britain
c) represent an immense human and financial cost
Reasons why young people leave home:
The main reasons for young people in 1994 were:
a) to look for a job
b) needing independence
c) escaping physical violence
d) relationships broke down
f) other problems
The problem: Young people and homelessness:
Young people can be trapped in a cycle of homelessness and unemployment. A report in 1996 estimates that in 1995 at least 246 000 young people become homeless in the United Kingdom.
Without work it is difficult to find a place to live but it is almost impossible to get a job without a permanent address.
In spring 1996, the unemployment rate of 16 to 24 - years olds was around 15 %. Many of those in work were in part - time or insecure jobs with low income
to yield ...... Resultate liefern
projection .......... Planung
conjunction ....... Verbindung
striking .......... auffallend
antagonistic ....... feindlich
struck (pt a. pp f. strike) ..... schlagen