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englisch artikel (Interpretation und charakterisierung)

History - roman to norman london





Roman London London was found by the Trojan prince Brutus and run by heroic giants from the Celtic King Lud. In AD43 was the Roman invasion under Emperor Claudius. The first people who built a square mile, which is now known as the City of London, were the Romans. During the first of the centuries AD, they also built important bridges, roads and forts. The Roman historian Tacitus said that London was filled with traders and a celebrated center of commerce.
In 61 Boudicca, a widow of an East Anglian chieftain, rebelled against the Imperal forces who had seized her land and raped her daughter. She destroyed a Roman colony and led a march to London. In London they massacred inhabitants and burnt the settlement to the ground. The reconstruction of the city went until 200; also a two-mile(3km), six-metre high defensive wall was built around London.
Londinium AD200
In the fourth century, racked by barbarian invasions, the Roman Empire was in cecline. In 410 the last troops withdrew and London became a ghost town. The only things which were in conditon were the roads.
Saxon and Viking London
During the fifth and the sixth centuries the Saxons crossed the North Sea and settled in Eastern and Southern England. They built farmsteads and trading posts outside the city walls. In 596 Augustine was sent by Pope Gregory to convert the English people to Christianity. Augustine was the first Archbishop of Canterbury. In 604 a wooden cathedral was built inside the walls. This cathedral was dedicated to St. Paul.
In the ninth century the city faced a new danger from the North Sea: the Vikings. The city was plundered in 841. In 851 the Danish raiders returned with 350 ships and destroyed the city. King Alfred of Wessex rebuilt the city in 886. He reestablished the city as a major trading centre with a merchant navy. During the tenth century the Saxon city expanded. New churches were built, parishes established and markets set up. In the eleventh century the vikings started a harassment. The English citizens were forced to accept a Danish King called Cnut. During his reign(1016-1040), Winchester replaced Landonas the capitel.

Edward the Confessor
In 1042 an English king came back to the throne, he was called Edward the Confessor. He devoted himself to build the grandest church of London. He replaced the church of St. Peter by a huge abbey: Westminster Abbey, and moved his court to this new palace of Westminster. Edward died in 1065 and was buried in Westminster Abbey.

The Norman Conquest
After the death of Edward there was a fight over the throne between William, the Duke of Normandy, and Edward´s brother, Harold. William invaded England and defeated Harold on 14th October 1066 at the battle of Hastings. William the Conquerer was crowned in Westminster Abbey on Christmas Day 1066. He granted the Bishop and burgesses of London a charter that acknowledged their rights and independence. He also ordered to build strongholds alongside the city walls, including the White Tower.

 
 



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